Apparently, at this early stage of the car's entry into the grid, the streets of major cities worldwide were the scene of virtual "slaughter" as the fatality rate in proportion to population was more than double the current rate. The sewers were brick-lined and found under the streets of the town. The bathrooms were connected by a drainage channel to sewers in the main streets leading to soak-pits. [20] [20] A prominent 20th century urbanist, Lewis Mumford, severely criticized some of the grid's characteristics: "With a T-square and a triangle, finally, the municipal engineer could, without the slightest training as either an architect or a sociologist, 'plan' a metropolis, with its standard lots, its standard blocks, its standard street widths, in short, with its standardized comparable, and replaceable parts. [9] [27] The first Indian civilization arose in the Indus Valley about 2,600 BC. They had flat roofs and, as with so many other things throughout the Indus Valley, they were just about identical. The Harappans were excellent city planners. High Lane, Looking West. Other historians have suggested that some kind of natural disaster led to the decline and disappearance of the Indus Valley peoples, perhaps a great flood or a drought or an earthquake. The Indus valley people were also well versed in the art of writing. Apart from the worship of god and goddess the people of Indus valley used to worship certain trees, birds, and animals. The gradual tapering of the walls in the far right was an intentional architectural feature to avoid collapse of the upper floors. [16] [4] The Indus Valley civilization vanished and it was forgotten. [27] [4] [24] Amazingly, the Indus Valley civilization appears to have been a peaceful one. The building on the right is a single large structure called the College, and may have been the residence of priests or other elites (see Slide 38). Scholars disagree about why this mysterious Indus Valley civilization declined and disappeared, but around 1900 BCE, it began to falter. It has long been claimed that the Indus Valley was the home of a literate civilization, but this has been challenged on linguistic and archaeological grounds. The systematic construction of residential houses and public buildings, laying down of principal streets, etc. [4] [18] In a random pattern B. In 2001, archaeologists discovered that Indus Valley people had knowledge of proto-dentistry. Most of the houses had baths, wells and covered drains connected with street drains. [15] [24] 6. "The main streets of Indus Valley ran from north to south to east to west intersecting one another at right angles [10] The project of this architect for Vasilyevsky Island was a typical rectangular grid of streets (originally intended to be canals, like in Amsterdam ), with three lengthwise thoroughfares, rectangularly crossed with about 30 crosswise streets. [3], Numerous excavations have been made to by various archaeological agencies both foreign and Indian at different sites of the civilization. [20] In the 1960s, traffic engineers and urban planners abandoned the grid virtually wholesale in favor of a " street hierarchy ". Most of the boats were probably river craft, small, flat-bottomed boats perhaps with a sail, similar to those plying the Indus … [5] On the ground floor most houses didn't have windows because these would have been right on the streets. [3] RGR-1 to RGR-3, RGR6 to RGR9 and some part of RGR-4 are available for excavations. It can be thus inferred that Indus Valley people were peaceful. Note: Footnotes & Links provided to all original resources. For reasons of defense, the planners of Tokyo eschewed the grid, opting instead for an irregular network of streets surrounding the Edo Castle grounds. To serve pedestrians well, a rectangular configuration and high frequency of streets and intersections is the preferred route, which the orthogonal grid geometry provides. The Indus Valley civilization had excellent masons who were able to construct load-bearing brick structures up to two stories effortlessly. [3] Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread covering an area of 1.25 million sq km. [16] The arterial streets running from north to south were flanked by shops, merchant dwellings and artisan's workshops. 2. [5] [10] At Mohenjo-daro narrow streets and alleyways branch off of the major streets, leading into more private neighborhoods. [3] The cities of Indus Valley Civilization had world’s first known urban sanitation systems. The walls along the streets and lanes may pinch in on the avenues that grow narrower and narrower, but curves are rare in the Mohenjo-daro system of roads. B. Lal wrote, 'Well-regulated streets oriented almost invariably along with the cardinal directions, thus forming a grid-iron pattern.'" I Indus Valley Street with covered drain on the right, Mohenjo-daro, Sindh. as the oldest city on earth (Howe 2002). India is a country in South Asia whose name comes from the Indus River. .. Rights Reserved. Looking north along the street to the east of the Great Bath. The Indus Valley people had a form of writing but unfortunately it has not been deciphered so nothing is known of their political system or their religion. [18] [30] Bricks were of a standard size and the Indus Valley civilization had standard weights and measures. The developed urban life, the use of the potters wheel, kiln-burnt bricks, copper and bronze vessels and pictorial writings are some of the common distinct characteristics of all these civilizations. [5] By the time of its mature phase, the civilisation had spread over an area larger than the others, which included a core of 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) up the … [5] [14] Trade between Indus region and Iraq was carried on through the island of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. There are convincing evidence to prove that around 2000 AD devastating flood repeatedly appeared in the lower Indus Valley and destroyed this flourishing civilization. The lower town contains a commercial and residential area. [1] [3] A large street to the east of the gateway leads north to the center of the city where evidence of workshops of agate, shell and copper works are found. [3] [5] The first recorded note of the discovery of Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was made in an 1842 book by James Lewis. The orientation of streets and buildings, according to the cardinal directions east-west, and north-south was the distinguishing factor of the Indus-Saraswati cities. [22] The advanced architecture of the Indus Valley people is evident by their impressive dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms and massive protective walls. The most striking difference between Indus Valley and other civilizations is no evidence of an army and a lack of substantial amount of weapons to wage war. Kenoyer suggests that the Indus River changed course, which would have hampered the local agricultural economy and the city's importance as a center of trade. [16] The doors of later buildings can be seen in the upper levels of the wall to the left. Cities like Harappa, which lie on the periphery of the known Indus Valley Civilization, served as gateway cities. "Inside the major blocks, the streets [of Mohenjo-daro] are not well-aligned. [5] The Indus Valley Civilization stands as one of the great early civilizations, alongside ancient Egypt and Sumerian Civilization, as a place where human settlements organized into cities, invented a system of writing and supported an advanced culture. Lower levels of Street 1 in DK- … The complete ruin of the Indus cities could also have been due to the wiping out of their system of agriculture. [26] It actually straddled northwest India and Pakistan. [3] It is difficult to assert when such a civilization of high order flourished in the North-Western region of India. [19], Life in Mohenjo-daro was obviously highly organized although most of the people of the Indus Valley were farmers who lived in small valleys.

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