That means that you would use a lower temperature to prevent more than one nitro group being substituted - in this case, 30°C rather than 50°C. Clearly, the alkyl substituents activate the benzene ring in the nitration reaction, and the chlorine and ester substituents deactivate the ring. Summary. Jmol.jmolLink(jmolApplet0,"select all;spacefill 20%; wireframe .15;","Ball & Stick") Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Here's the general reaction for the nitration of benzene. Jmol.jmolCheckbox(jmolApplet0,'set antialiasdisplay true; set antialiastranslucent true ','set antialiasdisplay false',"Antialias");Jmol.jmolButton(jmolApplet0,"draw pointgroup;","Show All Symmetry Elements"); Home / Organic Reactions / Electrophilic aromatic substitution / Electrophilic aromatic substitution – Nitration of benzene, Click the structures and reaction arrows in sequence to view the 3D models and animations respectively. Organic Chemistry Animations Introduction, Acid Chloride Formation – Thionyl Chloride, Acid chloride formation-Phosphorus Pentachloride, Addition to C=O - loss of carbonyl oxygen, Molecules with a Plane of Symmetry – Feist’s Acid, Chiral Allenes Without Stereogenic Centres, Conformations of ethane – Newman projection, Conformational Analysis – Pea Moth Pheromone, Substrate structure controls substitution mechanism S, E2 Regioselective Elimination to Menthenes A, E2 Regioselective Elimination to Menthenes B, Formation of Diazonium Salt – Diazotization, Benzyne formation – Diazotization-decarboxylation, Enolisation and formation of syn aldol product, Enolisation and formation of anti aldol product, Simple Diastereoselectivity - cis gives syn aldol, Simple Diastereoselectivity - trans gives anti aldol, Conjugate Addition of MeSH to an Unsaturated Aldehyde, Conjugate Addition of Diethylamine to an Unsaturated Nitrile (Acrylonitrile), Conjugate Addition of Diethylamine to an Unsaturated Ester, Conjugate Addition of Enamine to Unsaturated Imine, Conjugate addition of peroxide to form epoxides, Regioselectivity 2-methoxybuta-1,3-diene and acrylonitrile, Regioselectivity 1,1-dimethylbutadiene and methyl acrylate, Stereochemistry of the dienophile - diesters, Stereochemistry of the dienophile - dinitrile, The Woodward Hoffman description of the Diels-Alder, Intramolecular Diels-Alder (E)-3-Methyldeca-1,3,9-triene, Intramolecular Diels-Alder – 1,3,9-decatrien-8-one, 2,3-Dimethylbutadiene and Acrolein(propenal), Quinone as Dienophile – Steroid Framework, Intramolecular Diels-Alder – Regioselectivity reversal, 8-Phenylmenthol auxiliary-controlled Diels-Alder, Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis via hemiaminal, Pyridine N-Oxide – Nucleophilic Substitution, Pyridine N-Oxide – Remote Oxidation And Rearrangement, 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Isoxazole from nitrile oxide, Electrocyclic reactions are stereospecific, Conrotatory ring closure/opening - cyclobutene, Disrotatory ring closure/opening - hextriene, Semipinacol rearrangements of diazonium salts, Rearrangements with different nucleophiles, Retention of stereochemistry can indicate neighbouring group participation, Neighbouring group participation: alpha-lactone formation, Fragmentations are controlled by stereochemistry, Controlled by stereochemistry (Cis isomer), Controlled by stereochemistry (Trans – Less severe interactions), Controlled by stereochemistry (Trans – Severe interactions), Fragmentation of diastereoisomers (Trans-decalin I), Fragmentation of diastereoisomers (No ring fragmentation), Photolysis of diazomethane to produce a carbene, Methylation of carboxylic acid using diazomethane, Cyclopropanation of an Alkene by a Carbenoid, Stereoselective Aldol Reaction – Cis gives Syn, Stereoselective Aldol Reaction - Trans gives Anti, Endo-trig reactions (5-endo-trig orbital overlap), Hydroboration (Addition of boron hydride to alkenes), Pd-Carbonylative Kosugi-Migita-Stille Coupling Reaction, Pd-Butenolide Formation From Carbonylation Of A Vinyl Bromide, Pd-catalysed nucleophilic allylic substitution of functionalised compounds, Hydroboration of cyclopentadiene Ipc-borane, Acetylenic Ketone Reduction – Alpine Borane, Intermolecular aldol -proline – hydroxyacetone, BISCO Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide – BSCCO, Chalcogenides, Intercalation Compounds and Metal-rich phases, Compare shape and size of 1s, 2s and 2p orbitals, Orbital-orbital Interactions and Symmetry Adapted Linear Combinations, Distortions of a octahedral complex with chelating ligands, Ligand Substitution Square Planar Complex, Possible morphologies of Au Nanoparticles, Electrophilic Addition Addition of bromine to an alkene, Electrophilic addition to alkenes – Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical, Nucleophilic Addition Addition of Hydride, Cyanohydrin Formation – Nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group, Nucleophilic Substitution at Saturated Carbon, Nucleophilic Substitution Cyanide + Ethyl Bromide, Elimination – E2 Stereoselective for E alkenes, Radical Reactions Synthesis of Chloroalkanes, Radical Reactions CFCs and the Ozone Layer, Polyvinyl Chloride Poly(chloroethene) PVC, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License. You will get a certain amount of 1,3-dinitrobenzene formed even at 50°C. [ "article:topic", "authorname:clarkj", "showtoc:no" ], Former Head of Chemistry and Head of Science, Other Reactions of Benzene and Methylbenzene. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. You get a mixture of mainly two isomers formed: 2-nitromethylbenzene and 4-nitromethylbenzene. Notice that the new nitro group goes into the 3 position on the ring. They are used widely as precursors and chemical intermediates. Benzene is treated with a solution of concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated nitric acid at a temperature, not more than 50oC. Reactions of Benzene & Its Derivatives Chapter 22 Organic Lecture Series 2 Reactions of Benzene The most characteristic reaction of aromatic compounds is substitution at a ring carbon: + + Chlorobenzene Halogenation: H Cl2 Cl FeCl3 HCl + + Nitrobenzene Nitration: HNOHNO3 2 H2 SO4 H2 O From rate data of this kind, it is a simple matter to calculate the proportions of the three substitution isomers. The nitration of benzene is an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction, in which a nitro group (-NO 2) is introduced onto a benzene ring. Reaction type: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Follow ChemTube3D on Kudos Nitroaromatic compounds are used as intermediates in the synthesis of plants, dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, and insecticides. As the temperature rises, there exist higher chances of obtaining more than one nitro group -NO2 being substituted in the ring. The nitro group acts as a ring deactivator. Nitration reactions are used notably in the production of explosives like conversion of toluene to trinitrotoluene and conversion of guanidine to nitroguanidine. For more information contact us at or check out our status page at This is an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Apart from that, the reaction is just the same - using the same nitrating mixture of concentrated sulphuric and nitric acids. Jmol.jmolCheckbox(jmolApplet0,"zoom 300","zoom 100","Zoom",false);Jmol.jmolBr() Overall transformation : Ar-H to Ar-NO 2 Reagent : for benzene, HNO 3 in H 2 SO 4 / heat; Electrophilic species : the nitronium ion (i.e. Missed the LibreFest? Jmol.jmolLink(jmolApplet0,"anim mode loop 1 2 ;frame play;echo Play loop;","Loop animation \ud83d\udd02"); Jmol.jmolLink(jmolApplet0,"anim off;echo ","Stop animation \u23F9"); Jmol.jmolLink(jmolApplet0,"anim rewind#;","Frame 1 \u23EB");Jmol.jmolHtml('    ') Nitration is one of the most researched and studied organic reactions. ChemTube3D by Nick Greeves is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Benzene attacks the positively charged nitrogen atom of the electrophile, where one of the N=O bonds is broken at the same time.


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